A great deal of neuroscience is evolving. I suspect this is partly due to the Mind and Life Dialogues which His Holiness has hosted between spiritual thinkers and scientists. The research coming out of these dialogues on meditation is changing neuroscience.
There is no doubt, there are behavioral expressions due to our mental states. And, in learning more about this topic, I've come to appreciate neuroscientific understanding of the brain's role in mental experience is fairly advanced. But the question than lies at the base of an assumption in this area; are our mental processes reducible to biology, biochemistry or physical processes?
Our biography becomes our biology. Caroline Myss has a great body of work on this topic. This article on Neuroscience on nostalgia gets into this topic; "Our memories are the things that make us who we are. They give us a sense of ourselves and inform our behavior." Joseph LeDoux, Professor of neuroscience.
The question I have than is: are we reducible to our biology, our memories? I have to believe we are not. It takes a great deal of insight and internal work to move through memories to shift our lives: it's a shift in awareness which ultimately leads to a shift in consciousness.